Diabetes is a condition of glucose toxicity and not of insulin deficiency. Diabetes is caused by sugars, carbohydrates, elevated blood glucose (sugar), and infections. Diabetes is very much a condition of imbalances with multiple layers of causes, which constitute a vicious circle.
Sugar is like a powerful "drug"; it gives a quick rush, an initial boost of energy that quickly diminishes after 2-3 hours, resulting in a withdrawal effect on the body, and causing a craving for more.
Another way of looking at it is that sugars increase blood glucose concentration quickly, triggering a large insulin release from the pancreas, which then lowers the blood glucose just as quickly, even beyond the original starting point.
Carbohydrates (e.g., bread and pasta) are the "slow-release" or "extended-release" version of sugar. Their effect on blood glucose is less dramatic but longer-lived. Additional intakes will over layer, compounding the effect, making carbohydrates more potent than sugar.
I know that these are significant factors because I used two to three times more insulin when eating carbohydrates or sugars. Modern life has reduced the amount of physical demand on the body, thereby increasing the effects of carbohydrates and sugars.
Infections (microorganisms, especially bacteria) feed on sugars and blood glucose, which in turn increase the presence of infections in the body. As the microorganism population increases, blood glucose concentrations increase, to high levels that are equal to or exceed that of what sugars and carbohydrates do to blood glucose. I will not try explaining though, how infections increase blood glucose concentrations because I do not know. Through careful observations, I do note that the presence of infections is the most prominent feature that causes me to be hyperglycemic.
The relationship of sugars and carbohydrates to infections in the body forms a loop, or a vicious self-compounding circle, so long as sugar is constantly added to the system, until the infection's effect on blood glucose becomes self-sustaining and takes a life of its own.
Increased sugar and carbohydrate consumption increases blood glucose concentration, which results in more insulin release, and for longer periods of time. This insulin promotes fat storage. Eventually the fat causes insulin resistance, which prevents the body from regulating blood glucose properly. This in turn invites and provides a perfect medium for -- infections, especially bacterial, to flourish. If the population of infectious microorganisms in the body increases to a large enough extent, it compromises the immune system. Also, the capacity of the pancreas to produce enough insulin to lower its effects is exceeded, causing ketosis (breakdown of fat -- which increases blood glucose). When blood glucose concentration passes 300 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl) it becomes ketoacidosis, a life threatening condition that must be treated with exogenous insulin.
There are two main keys to understanding diabetes. The first key is to understand blood glucose levels, and why they do what they do, then to pinpoint the cause. The second key is the C-Peptide test, which will be explained later. A holistic approach must be taken, not ignoring any details in one's life.
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